Survey of the genus Thiratoscirtus

Thiratoscirtus alveolus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus alveolus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 599

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24938
Thiratoscirtus alveolus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24939
Thiratoscirtus alveolus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24940
Thiratoscirtus alveolus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)



references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus atakpa (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012

combinations

Thiratoscirtus atakpa (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012: 759

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-29886
Thiratoscirtus atakpa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29887
Thiratoscirtus atakpa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - internal structure of epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)



references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Calabar area (SE Nigeria). , Warszawa. 62 4: 733-772.


Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 600

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24941
Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24942
Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24943
Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)





Fig.: F-2060
Thiratoscirtus bipaniculus - ♀ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus capito (♂,♀) SIMON, 1903

combinations

Theratoscirtus capito (♂) SIMON, 1903: 111
Theratoscirtus capito: SIMON 1903: 721
Thiratoscirtus capito: (♀) SIMON 1910: 435

distribution

Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome

illustrations


Fig.: D-6638
Thiratoscirtus capito - ♂ - palpal organ, ventral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-6639
Thiratoscirtus capito - ♂ - palpal organ, lateral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)



references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. , Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Deuxiéme Edition. Paris (Roret) 2 4: 669-1080.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Arachnides de la Guinée espagnole. Mém. Soc. esp. hist. nat. 1 3: 65-124.
SIMON, E. (1909)

Arachnides recueillis par L. FEA sur la côte occidentale d´Afrique. 2e partie. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Genova 3 4: 335-449 fig. 4-21.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.


Thiratoscirtus cinctus (♂,♀) (THORELL, 1899)

combinations

Jotus cinctus (♂,♀) THORELL, 1899: 101
Jotus crinitus: SIMON 1903: 729 (lapsus)
Thiratoscirtus cinctus: ROEWER 1954: 1092
Jotus cinctus: (♂,♀) PRÓSZYŃSKI 1984: 70

collected material

Cameroon
SYNTYPE, ex Syntypus Mus. Stockholm, Slg. ROEWER 1951 , 1 ♂ - : 13413 - 141)

distribution

Cameroon

illustrations


Fig.: D-2006
Jotus cinctus - ♂ - Camerun - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1984)

Fig.: D-2007
Jotus cinctus - ♂ - Camerun - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1984)

Fig.: D-2008
Jotus cinctus - ♀ - Camerun - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1984)

Fig.: D-2009
Jotus cinctus - ♀ - Camerun - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1984)



references

PLATNICK, N. I. (1989)

Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1981-1987. A supplement to Brignoli´s "A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981". Manchester University Press 673 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. , Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1984)

Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Wyższa Szkola Rolniczo-Pedagogiczna, Siedlcach 1-177.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1987)

Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae 2. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoly Rolniczo-Pedagogicznej SiedlcachWSRP 1-172.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Deuxiéme Edition. Paris (Roret) 2 4: 669-1080.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.
THORELL, T. (1899)

Araneae Camerunenses (Africae occidentalis) quas anno 1891 collegerunt Cel. Dr Y. SJÖSTEDT aliique. Bih. Svenska. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 25 1: 1-105.
ŻABKA, M. (1987)

Salticidae (Araneae) of Oriental, Australian and Pacific regions, II. Genera Lycidas and Maratus. , Warszawa. 40 11: 451-483.


Thiratoscirtus efik (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012

combinations

Thiratoscirtus efik (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012: 760

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-29883
Thiratoscirtus efik - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29884
Thiratoscirtus efik - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29885
Thiratoscirtus efik - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)



references

DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of Kenya collected by Åke Holm. , Warszawa. 66 3: 437-466.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Calabar area (SE Nigeria). , Warszawa. 62 4: 733-772.


Thiratoscirtus elgonensis (♂,♀) DAWIDOWICZ & WESOŁOWSKA, 2016

combinations

Thiratoscirtus elgonensis (♂,♀) DAWIDOWICZ & WESOŁOWSKA, 2016: 456

distribution

Kenya

illustrations


Fig.: D-36953
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36954
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36955
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36956
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - PARATYPE - tibial apophysis- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36957
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36958
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne internal structure- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)






Fig.: F-6001
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)


Fig.: F-6002
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)


Fig.: F-6003
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♀ - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)


Fig.: F-6004
Thiratoscirtus elgonensis - ♀ - palp - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

references

DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of Kenya collected by Åke Holm. , Warszawa. 66 3: 437-466.


Thiratoscirtus fuscorufescens (♂) STRAND, 1906

combinations

Thiratoscirtus fuscorufescens (♂) STRAND, 1906: 100

distribution

Cameroon

illustrations


Fig.: D-31399
Theratoscirtus fusco-rufescens - ♂- © STRAND, E. (1906)



references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
STRAND, E. (1906)

Tropisch-afrikansche Spinnen des Kgl. Naturalienkabinetts in Stuttgart. Jahrh. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. Württemberg ?1-103.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.


Thiratoscirtus gambari (♂,♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus gambari (♂,♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 601

misidentifications

Bacelarella pavida (♀) SZŰTS & JOQUE, 2001: 83 [WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH 2011: 601]

distribution

Ivory Coast, Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24944
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, ventral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24945
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, ventrolateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24946
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, ventrolateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24947
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, lateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24948
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, dorsal view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24949
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - chelicera- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)


Fig.: D-24950
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - PARATYPE - spination of distal part of first leg- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24951
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24952
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24953
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24954
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24955
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - PARATYPE - tip of palp, retrolateral view- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)


Fig.: D-6610
Bacelarella pavida - ♀ - epigyne, ventral - © SZÜTS, T. & JOCQUÉ, R. (2001)

Fig.: D-6612
Bacelarella pavida - ♀ - vulva, dorsal view - © SZÜTS, T. & JOCQUÉ, R. (2001)





Fig.: F-2074
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♂ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)


Fig.: F-2075
Thiratoscirtus gambari - ♀ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

SZÜTS, T. & JOCQUÉ, R. (2001)

New species in the genus Bacelarella (Araneae, Salticidae) from Côte d´Ivoire. Annls Mus. r. Afr. cent. 285: 77-92.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus harpago (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus harpago (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 601

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24956
Thiratoscirtus harpago - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, ventral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24957
Thiratoscirtus harpago - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, lateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24958
Thiratoscirtus harpago - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, dorsal view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)



references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Calabar area (SE Nigeria). , Warszawa. 62 4: 733-772.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus lamboji (♀) SEITER & WESOŁOWSKA, 2015

combinations

Thiratoscirtus lamboji (♀) SEITER & WESOŁOWSKA, 2015: 5

distribution

Gabon

illustrations


Fig.: D-32092
Thiratoscirtus lamboij - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Fig.: D-32093
Thiratoscirtus lamboij - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - internal structure of epigyne- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Fig.: D-32094
Thiratoscirtus lamboij - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - palp- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)





Fig.: F-4650
Thiratoscirtus lamboij - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)


Fig.: F-4651
Thiratoscirtus lamboij - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

references

SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Two new Thiratoscirtus species from Gabon (Araneae, Salticidae, Thiratoscirtinae). European Journal of Taxonomy 123: 1-9.


Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus (♂,♀) WISNIEWSKI & WESOŁOWSKA, 2013

combinations

Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus (♂,♀) WISNIEWSKI & WESOŁOWSKA, 2013: 252

collected material

Congo D. R.
HOLOTYPE, Butembo, 1750 m, sol suspendu, II-III.1975, 1 ♂ - leg.: M. Lejeune, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 161 397) || PARATYPE, Butembo, 1750 m, sol suspendu, II-III.1975, 1 ♀ - leg.: M. Lejeune, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 161 397) || PARATYPE, Kivu, km 7. route Butembo - Beni, Reserve forest Nahuha, 1700 m, 15-20.IV.1974, 1 ♀ - leg.: M. Lejeune, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 155 567)

distribution

Congo D. R.

illustrations


Fig.: D-45406
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45407
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventroretrolateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45408
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, lateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45409
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, dorsal view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45410
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45411
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)






Fig.: F-10252
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - general appearance, dorsal view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10253
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - general appearance, lateral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10254
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10255
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, lateral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10256
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, dorsal view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10257
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♀ - PARATYPE - general appearance, dorsal view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)



Fig.: F-10258
Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

references

WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W.  (2013)

New Thiratoscirtus species from equatorial Africa (Araneae: Salticidae). , Wroclaw. 24: 251-260.


Thiratoscirtus minimus (♂) DAWIDOWICZ & WESOŁOWSKA, 2016

combinations

Thiratoscirtus minimus (♂) DAWIDOWICZ & WESOŁOWSKA, 2016: 458

collected material

Kenya
Western Kenya, Kakamega Forest, Buyangu Area, 8.10.2005, 1 ♀ - leg.: Holstein, Joachim, Dr., det.: Holstein, Joachim :  Aran-JH0436)

distribution

Kenya

illustrations


Fig.: D-36959
Thiratoscirtus minimus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36960
Thiratoscirtus minimus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Fig.: D-36961
Thiratoscirtus minimus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)





Fig.: F-10050
Thiratoscirtus minimus - © HOLSTEIN


Fig.: F-10051
Thiratoscirtus minimus - © HOLSTEIN


Fig.: F-5999
Thiratoscirtus minimus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)


Fig.: F-6000
Thiratoscirtus minimus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

references

DAWIDOWICZ, A. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2016)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of Kenya collected by Åke Holm. , Warszawa. 66 3: 437-466.


Thiratoscirtus mirabilis (♂,♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus mirabilis (♂,♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 603

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24959
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, ventral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24960
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, lateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24961
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♂ - PARATYPE - tibial apophysis, dorsdal view- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24962
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24963
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)





Fig.: F-2076
Thiratoscirtus mirabilis - ♂ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus monstrum (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus monstrum (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 604

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24964
Thiratoscirtus monstrum - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24965
Thiratoscirtus monstrum - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24966
Thiratoscirtus monstrum - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne, diagrammatic course of seminal duct- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)





Fig.: F-2077
Thiratoscirtus monstrum - ♀ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus niveimanus (♂) SIMON, 1886

combinations

Thiratoscirtus niveimanus (♂) SIMON, 1886: 561
Theratoscirtus niveimanus: PETRUNKEVITCH 1911: 713

distribution

Brazil

references

PETRUNKEVITCH, A. (1911)

A synonymic index-catalogue of spiders of North, Central and South America with all adjacent islands, Greenland, Bermuda, West Indies, Terra Del Fuego, Galapagos, etc.. Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. XXIX: 1-720.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SIMON, E. (1886)

Arachnides recuellis en 1882-1883 dans la Patagonie méridionale, de Santa Cruz à Punta Arena, par M. E. LEBRUN, attaché comme naturaliste à la Mission du passage de Vénus. Bull. Soc. zool. France 11: 558-577.


Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri (♂) SEITER & WESOŁOWSKA, 2015

combinations

Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri (♂) SEITER & WESOŁOWSKA, 2015: 2

distribution

Gabon

illustrations


Fig.: D-32088
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Fig.: D-32089
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Fig.: D-32090
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Fig.: D-32091
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp- © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)





Fig.: F-4646
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)


Fig.: F-4647
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)


Fig.: F-4648
Thiratoscirtus oberleuthneri - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp - © SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

references

SEITER, M. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2015)

Two new Thiratoscirtus species from Gabon (Araneae, Salticidae, Thiratoscirtinae). European Journal of Taxonomy 123: 1-9.


Thiratoscirtus obudu (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus obudu (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 606

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24967
Thiratoscirtus obudu - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, ventral view- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24968
Thiratoscirtus obudu - ♂ - PARATYPE - palpal organ, lateral view- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24969
Thiratoscirtus obudu - ♂ - PARATYPE - chelicera- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)





Fig.: F-2078
Thiratoscirtus obudu - ♂ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)


Fig.: F-2079
Thiratoscirtus obudu - ♂ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus patagonicus (♂) SIMON, 1886

combinations

Thiratoscirtus patagonicus (♂) SIMON, 1886: 560
Theratoscirtus patagonicus: SIMON 1903: 721

distribution

Argentina, Congo

illustrations


Fig.: D-6633
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - palpal organ, ventral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-6634
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - palpal organ, lateral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-6636
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♀ - epigyne, ventral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-6637
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♀ - vulva, dorsal view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-39290
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-39291
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SZÜTS, T. (2004)


Fig.: D-39292
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-39298
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus- © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-13397
Theratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - palpo, retrolateral- © GALIANO, M. E. (1963)

Fig.: D-13398
Theratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - palpo, ventral- © GALIANO, M. E. (1963)

Fig.: D-13399
Theratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - cefalotorax- © GALIANO, M. E. (1963)

Fig.: D-13400
Theratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂ - quelicero- © GALIANO, M. E. (1963)


Fig.: D-21624
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SIMON, E. (1903)

Fig.: D-21625
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SIMON, E. (1903)

Fig.: D-21626
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SIMON, E. (1903)

Fig.: D-32433
Thiratoscirtus patagonicus - ♂- © SIMON, E. (1886)



references

GALIANO, M. E. (1963)

Las especies americanas de aranas de la familia Salticidae descriptas por EUGENE SIMON: Redescripciones basadas en los ejemplares tipicos. 23 66: 273-470.
MERIAN, P. (1913)

Les araignées de la Terre de Feu et de la Patagonie. 20: 7-100.
PETRUNKEVITCH, A. (1911)

A synonymic index-catalogue of spiders of North, Central and South America with all adjacent islands, Greenland, Bermuda, West Indies, Terra Del Fuego, Galapagos, etc.. Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. XXIX: 1-720.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. , Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2017)

Pragmatic classification of the World's Salticidae (Araneae). ECOLOGICA MONTENEGRINA 12: 1-134.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
RUBIO, G. D., BAIGORRIA, J. E. & SCIOSCIA, C. L. (2018)

Arañas saltícidas de Misiones: guía para la identificación: tribus basales. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires : Universidad Maimónides : Ediciones Fundación Azara 208 pp..
SIMON, E. (1886)

Arachnides recuellis en 1882-1883 dans la Patagonie méridionale, de Santa Cruz à Punta Arena, par M. E. LEBRUN, attaché comme naturaliste à la Mission du passage de Vénus. Bull. Soc. zool. France 11: 558-577.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Deuxiéme Edition. Paris (Roret) 2 4: 669-1080.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.


Thiratoscirtus perspicuus (♂,♀) WISNIEWSKI & WESOŁOWSKA, 2013

combinations

Thiratoscirtus perspicuus (♂,♀) WISNIEWSKI & WESOŁOWSKA, 2013: 256

collected material

Congo D. R.
PARATYPE, Kivu, Butembo, valleé du la Musosa, V.1967, 1 ♂ - leg.: R. P. Lejeune, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 132 821) || PARATYPE, Kivu, entre fenielle et base trone bananier sauvage, sommet Ile Idjuoi, 29.IV.1964, 1 ♂ - leg.: Q. Faiu, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 126 530) || HOLOTYPE, Kivu, volcano Karisimbi, Rukumi, 3600 m, dans mousses de Senecio,, 10.VII.1970, 1 ♂ - leg.: M. Lejeune, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska : 138 474)Ivory Coast
PARATYPE, Nimba Mts, 1952-62, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ - leg.: M. Lamotte, det.: Wiśniewski , Wesołowska )

distribution

Congo D. R.

illustrations


Fig.: D-45412
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventroprolateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45413
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45414
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventroretrolateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45415
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, lateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45416
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - leg I, distal part, prolateral view- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45417
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: D-45418
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

Fig.: D-45419
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♀ - PARATYPE - internal structure of epigyne- © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)





Fig.: F-10260
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - general appearance, dorsal view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10261
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - general appearance, lateral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10262
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10263
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventroretrolateral view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10264
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♀ - PARATYPE - general appearance, dorsal view - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)


Fig.: F-10265
Thiratoscirtus perspicuus - ♀ - PARATYPE - epigyne - © WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2013)

references

WISNIEWSKI, K. & WESOŁOWSKA, W.  (2013)

New Thiratoscirtus species from equatorial Africa (Araneae: Salticidae). , Wroclaw. 24: 251-260.


Thiratoscirtus procerus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012

combinations

Thiratoscirtus procerus (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS, 2012: 761

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-29881
Thiratoscirtus procerus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29882
Thiratoscirtus procerus - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - internal structure of epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)





Fig.: F-3705
Thiratoscirtus procerus - ♀ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2017)

Pragmatic classification of the World's Salticidae (Araneae). ECOLOGICA MONTENEGRINA 12: 1-134.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Calabar area (SE Nigeria). , Warszawa. 62 4: 733-772.


Thiratoscirtus remyi (♀) (BERLAND & MILLOT, 1941)

combinations

Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi (♀) BERLAND & MILLOT, 1941: 364
Pochyta remyi: PRÓSZYŃSKI 1990: 291
Thiratoscirtus (?) remyi: (♀) WESOŁOWSKA 2018: 24

distribution

Guinea

illustrations


Fig.: D-36711
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀- © BERLAND, L. & MILLOT, J. (1941)





Fig.: F-8527
Thiratoscirtus (?) remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - Epigyne. Scale bar: 0.2 mm - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2018)


Fig.: F-10240
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - label © SZÜTS


Fig.: F-10241
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE © SZÜTS


Fig.: F-10242
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE © SZÜTS


Fig.: F-10243
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE © SZÜTS


Fig.: F-10244
Pochyta (Pochytoides) Remyi - ♀ - HOLOTYPE © SZÜTS

references

BERLAND, L. & MILLOT, J. (1941)

Les araignees de l´Afrique Occidentale Francaise I.- Les Salticides. Mem. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. Paris (N.S.) 12 2: 297-421.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. (2018)

A revision of the genus Pochytoides BERLAND & MILLOT, 1941 (Araneae: Salticidae), with descriptions of six new species. European Journal of Taxonomy 418: 1-26.


Thiratoscirtus torquatus (♂,♀) SIMON, 1903

combinations

Theratoscirtus torquatus (♂) SIMON, 1903: 112
Thiratoscirtus torquatus: (♂,♀) WESOŁOWSKA & EDWARDS 2012: 762

distribution

Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-29875
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - palpal organ- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29876
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - palpal organ- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29877
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - bulb, dorsal view- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29878
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - cheliceral dentition- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29879
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♀ - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Fig.: D-29880
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♀ - internal structire of epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)


Fig.: D-6640
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - palpal organ, ventral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Fig.: D-6641
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - palpal organ, lateral view - © SZÜTS, T. (2004)





Fig.: F-3706
Thiratoscirtus torquatus - ♂ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. , Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Deuxiéme Edition. Paris (Roret) 2 4: 669-1080.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Arachnides de la Guinée espagnole. Mém. Soc. esp. hist. nat. 1 3: 65-124.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.
WESOŁOWSKA, W. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2012)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Calabar area (SE Nigeria). , Warszawa. 62 4: 733-772.


Thiratoscirtus versicolor (♂) SIMON, 1902

combinations

Thiratoscirtus versicolor (♂) SIMON, 1902: 416
Theratoscirtus versicolor: SIMON 1903: 721

distribution

Gabon, Sierra Leone

references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. , Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SIMON, E. (1902)

Etudes arachnologiques. 32e Mémoire. LI. Description d´espèces nouvelles de la famille des Salticidae. 71: 384-421.
SIMON, E. (1903)

Histoire naturelle des Araignées. Deuxiéme Edition. Paris (Roret) 2 4: 669-1080.
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.


Thiratoscirtus vilis (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus vilis (♀) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 606

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24970
Thiratoscirtus vilis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24971
Thiratoscirtus vilis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne, internal structure- © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)





Fig.: F-2080
Thiratoscirtus vilis - ♀ - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.


Thiratoscirtus yorubanus (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011

combinations

Thiratoscirtus yorubanus (♂) WESOŁOWSKA & RUSSELL-SMITH, 2011: 607

distribution

Nigeria

illustrations


Fig.: D-24972
Thiratoscirtus yorubanus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, ventral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24973
Thiratoscirtus yorubanus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, lateral view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24974
Thiratoscirtus yorubanus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ, dorsal view - © WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Fig.: D-24975
Thiratoscirtus yorubanus - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - chelicera- © BRYANT, E. B. (1950)



references

WESOŁOWSKA, W. & RUSSEL-SMITH, A. (2011)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from Southern Nigeria. , Warszawa. 61 3: 553-619.