Illustrated key to the Corythalia species


  •   MALES
    •    Body
       +
    •    Carapace
       +
    •    Chelicera
       +

      Base furrow teeth number retromarginal
      2 teeth

      Base furrow teeth number promarginal
      2 teeth
    •    Palp
       +

      Gnathocoxa
      Corner present

      Tibia - retrolateral tibial apophysis - characteristics
      dorsal serration distinct
      dorsal serration indistinct but present
      dorsal serration absent
      base of RTA not or not distinctly wider than distal section
      base of RTA distinctly wider than distal section (consider also retrolateral view)
      RTA in ventral view very slim
      RTA in ventral view slim
      RTA in ventral view medium-sized in width (between 3x longer than broad and 4.5x)
      RTA in ventral view stout (less than 3x longer than broad)
      RTA very long (longer than width of tegulum)
      RTA long
      RTA medium-sized in length
      RTA short (length between 0.3x and 0.5x the width of tegulum)
      RTA in retrolateral view more or less parallel with longitudinal axis of palp
      RTA in retrolateral view with slight ventral orientation (less than 10° angle)
      RTA in retrolateral view with clear ventral orientation (at least 10° angle)
      RTA in retrolateral view without bent (or just indistinct bent)
      RTA in retrolateral view with bent (distal section at least with 70° bent from longitudinal axis of proximal section)

      Tibia - ventral bump - size
      absent or at least not recognisable as such
      very short and indistinct
      short (between 0.5x and 0.8x the width of sperm duct)
      medium-sized (as long or about as long as width of sperm duct)
      long (at least 1.5x as long as width of sperm duct, sometimes extending beyond lateral margin of tibia in ventral view)

      Tibia - ventral bump - characteristics
      inconspicuous
      moderately conspicuous
      conspicuous
      very large (extending prolateral margin of tbia in ventral view)
    •    Cymbium
       +

      Presence of prominent ridges or extensions ventrally
      present
      absent
    •    Tegulum
       +

      Width
      tegulum narrower than cymbium
      tegulum as broad as cymbium
      tegulum broader than cymbium (even though minimally broader)

      Shape of proximal half
      proximal tegulum lobe present
      proximal tegulum lobe as such absent
      proximal tegulum lobe absent

      Proximal lobe - position
      at retrolateral half of tegulum
      still retrolaterally, but slightly shifted centrally
      distinctly shifted centrally

      Proximal lobe - size rel.
      relatively narrow
      medium-sized
      broad

      Proximal lobe - shape
      regularly rounded
      prolaterally with very flat extension

      Special structures
      with (fine) transversal ridge (often at distal half at the area of the border between embolic division and tegulum)
      with flat triangular lobe directed distally
      without special structures

      Sperm duct - location
      occupying retrolateral half of tegulum or slightly more
      occupying clearly more than retrolateral half and at most 3/4
      occupying more than retrolateral 3/4 of tegulum

      Sperm duct - shape
      double-stacked S-shaped, (very depressed)
      double-stacked S-shaped, with proximal loop larger than others
      double-stacked S-shaped, with proximal and distal loop equal in size
      double-stacked S-shaped, with proximal loop smaller than distal
      shape not recognisable, as only parts of sperm duct visible through tegulum surface
    •    Embolus
       +

      Base position
      centro-distally (or even retrolatero-distally)
      in prolateral half (or, depending on the size, prolateral 2/3, 3/4, etc.) of tegulum, but not reaching the prolateral margin; at distal section
      in prolateral half (or, depending on the size, prolateral 2/3, 3/4, etc.) of tegulum, in line with (or even extending) the prolateral margin; at distal section
      in prolateral half of tegulum, but not reaching prolateral margin, between central and distal section of tegulum
      in prolateral half (or, depending on size, prolateral 2/3, 3/4, etc.) of tegulum but not reaching prolateral margin, at subdistal section (almost distally)

      Base circle size
      extremely small (width less than 1/4 the width of tegulum)
      very small (width between 1/4 and 1/3 the width of tegulum)
      small (width between 1/3 and 1/2 the width of tegulum)
      medium-sized
      large (width between 2/3 and 3/4 the width of tegulum)
      very large

      Base - special structures
      Special structures at/ on embolus base absent (except for indistinct ridges or flat bulges that are often recognisable)
      with prolateral extension in form of an elongated bulge
      with some thorn- or tooth-like extensions prolatero-distally (sometimes not distinctly extending but always recognisable as such)
      with longitudinal division (ridge) dividing embolus base in a basal and a prolatero-distal part (prolatero-distal part in retrolateral view distinctly protruding from distal part of tegulum)
      with longitudinal ridge (division) leaving a basal part prolaterally (but sometimes not clearly recognisable!)

      Arising point
      1 o´clock-position
      2 o´clock-position
      3 o´clock-position
      4 o´clock-position
      5 o´clock-position
      6 o´clock-position
      7 o´clock-position
      8 o´clock-position
      9 o´clock-position
      10 o´clock-position
      11 o´clock-position
      12 o´clock-position

      Direction of distalmost section
      distally to minimally prolatero-distally (not more than 10° angle from longitudinal axis of cymbium)
      prolatero-distally (with between 11° and 50° angle from longitudinal axis of cymbium)
      disto-prolaterally to prolaterally (with at least 51° angle from longitudinal axis of cymbium)

      width relation - at arising point - subdistally
      at most 2x broader
      from 2.1x to 2.5x broader
      from 2.6x to 4x broader
      from 4.1x to 7.5x broader

      width relation - subdistally - centrally
      at most 1/4 the width of central section
      from > 1/4 to < 1/2 the width of central section
      from > 1/2 to < 3/4 the width of central section
      from > 3/4 to < 1x the width of central section
      even > than the width of central section

      Shape
      circular curved
      bent counterclockwise

      General structure
      with more than 3 longitudinal ridges
      without or with 1-3 (at most) longitudinal ridges
      very short, shorter than 1/3 width of tegulum
      short, between 1/3 and 1/2 the width of tegulum
      medium-sized, between 1/2 and 1x the width of tegulum
      long
      very long, more than 1.5x the width of tegulum
      with less than 1/2 winding
      with more than 1/2 winding but less than 3/4 winding
      with more than 3/4 winding but less than 1 winding
      with more than 1 1/2 windings
      with distinct embolic lamella (longitudinally associated hyaline membrane (homologous to conductor?), over entire embolus length)
      without distinct embolic lamella over entire embolus length
      with apophysis
      without apophysis
      in ventral view subdistally distinctly narrower than proximally
      in ventral view subdistally not narrower or narrower, but not distinctly narrower than proximally (more than 1/7 as broad
      narrow (centrally between 1/4 and 1/3 the width of sperm duct)
      narrow to medium-sized and hose shaped
      quite broad and hose-shaped
      massive (centrally almost as broad or broader than width of sperm duct)
      filiform (very narrow: centrally with less than 1/4 the width of sperm duct)
      differently shaped (not hose-shaped, not filiform, not massive) (e.g. irregular shape or...)
      elongated lobe-like

      Special structure
      distally regularly bifurcated
      distally irregularly bifurcated
      subdistally broadened
      S-shaped
      sickle-shaped
      distally prolaterally with very fine candle-flame-like protrusion
      distally pointed
      distally distinctly bent retrolaterally
      distally rounded
      distally truncated
      tip bent proximo-ventrally
      tip bent retrolaterally (tip may be very fine and light)
      without apohysis (apophyses)
      with one apohysis
      with two apohysis
      with more than two apohyses
      with membranous lamella subdistally or distally
    •    Legs
       +

      Leg formula
      1-2-3-4
      1-3-4-2
      3-4-1-2
      3-4-2-1
      4-3-1-2
      4-3-2-1

      Colouration
      moderately dark or light (red-)brown with many lighter annulations
      dark red-brown or brown with several lighter annulations, mainly at proximal articles and tarsi, but also at distal sections of tibiae and/or metatarsi
      dark red-brown or brown with few lighter annulations, mainly at proximal articles and tarsi
      completely or mainly with dark colour (e.g. dark red-brown) ((hardly with lighter sections, e.g. only tarsi lighter)
    •    Opisthosoma
       +

      Colouration
      three bands; AM broadest; C second broadest, with dark chevron; PM narrowest
      three bands; AM broadest; C second broadest (but only slightly narrower than AM), without dark chevron; PM narrowest
      three bands; AM broadest; AM & C narrower (C < 1/6 OL), with light small stacked chevrons betw. C & PM
      three bands; AM broadest; AM & C narrower (C < 1/6 OL), without light small stacked chevrons betw. C & PM
      three bands; AM broadest; C & PM longitudinally connected by large and broad light patch
      three bands; C & PM medially interrupted or at least less distinct; C broadest, but still narrow (< 1/6 OL), without d. chevron; PM very narrow, but still slightly broader than AM, hence, O with large dark field occupying large part of anterior half of O
      two bands (AM missing or at most minimally indicated); C < 1/6 OL, but anyway slightly broader than PM and with dark chevron in centre; in the section between C and PM with several light, stacked chevrons
    •    Ecology
       +

      Geographical Distribution
      South America
      North America
  •   FEMALES
    •     Body
       +
    •     Carapace
       +
    •     Chelicera
       +

      Base furrow teeth number promarginal
      2 teeth
    •     Palp
       +

      Gnathocoxa
      Corner present
      Corner absent
    •     Legs
       +

      Leg formula
      3-4-1-2
      3-4-2-1
      4-3-1-2
      4-3-2-1

      Colouration
      moderately dark or light (red-)brown with many lighter annulations
      dark red-brown or brown with several lighter annulations, mainly at proximal articles and tarsi, but also at distal sections of tibiae and/or metatarsi
      dark red-brown or brown with few lighter annulations, mainly at proximal articles and tarsi
      completely or mainly with dark colour (e.g. dark red-brown) ((hardly with lighter sections, e.g. only tarsi lighter)
    •     Opisthosoma
       +

      Colouration
      three bands; AM broadest; C second broadest, with dark chevron; PM narrowest
      three bands; AM broadest; C second broadest (but only slightly narrower than AM), without dark chevron; PM narrowest
      three bands; AM broadest; AM & C narrower (C < 1/6 OL), without light small stacked chevrons betw. C & PM
      three bands; AM broadest; C & PM longitudinally connected by large and broad light patch
      three bands; C broadest, with d. chevron; PM very narrow, but 2nd broadest; AM even narrower than PM and only at anterior margin of O, leaving a large dark field occupying almost complete anterior half of O
      three bands; C & PM medially interrupted or at least less distinct; C broadest, but still narrow (< 1/6 OL), without d. chevron; PM very narrow, but still slightly broader than AM, hence, O with large dark field occupying large part of anterior half of O
      two bands (AM missing or at most minimally indicated); C < 1/6 OL, but anyway slightly broader than PM and with dark chevron in centre; in the section between C and PM with several light, stacked chevrons
    •     Epigyne
       +

      Field - presence
      present
      absent

      Field - width
      (slightly) longer than broad
      broader than long
      clearly broader than long

      Window - shape
      (approximately) round (length / width < 1.1)
      oval
      with transversal division (part of this devision might be indicated by colour difference or fine gradation)
      without transversal division
      anterior 1/3 of epigynal window broader than posterior 1/3
      anterior 1/3 of epigynal window narrower than posterior 1/3
      anterior 1/3 of epigynal window more or less as broad as posterior 1/3

      Windows - septum - state
      continuous
      uncontinuous
      very narrow
      narrow (> 1/8, < 1/6 the width of epigynal window)
      medium-sized (> 1/6, < 1/3 the width of epigynal window)
      broad (> 1/3, < 2/3 the width of epigynal window)
      very broad (> 2/3 the width of epigynal window)
      separating more than only the posterior sections of epigynal windows
      at anteriormost section rather converging than diverging
      at anteriormost section clearly diverging

      Window - posterior margin - distance to EpGF
      very short (< 1/10 the length of epigynal window)
      short
      medium-sized (> 1/3 the length of epigynal window; < 1/2)
      long (> 1/2 the length of epigynal window; < 1)
      very long (at least as long as epigynal window)

      Window - posterior margin - position
      not reaching the epigastric furrow
      reaching (or almost reaching or minimally extending) the epigastric furrow
      distinctly extending beyond epigastric furrow

      Window - lateral margin - condition
      continuous
      with gap (might be very conspicuous!)

      Window - anterior margin - condition
      margins of both epigynal windows anterio-medially regularly connected
      margins of both epigynal windows anterio-medially not connected

      Window - posterior half - shape
      regularly rounded
      medially with relatively steep and long increase (medio-)anteriorly, leaving a distinctly large, approximately triangular field between them and the epigastric furrow

      Copulatory opening - location
      located in anterior half of epigyne
      located centrally or more or less centrally in epigyne
      located in posterior half of epigyne
    •     Vulva
       +

      blind sac - length
      at least 3x longer than broad
      less than 3x longer than broad
      blind sac absent

      fertilization duct - arising point
      centro-anteriorly
      medio-anteriorly
      medially
      anterio-medially
      centro-subanteriorly

      fertilization duct - width
      initial section of fertilisation duct narrow
      initial section of fertilisation duct medium-sized (not narrower or at most 3/4 as narrow as connective duct)
      initial section of fertilisation duct comparatively broad ([slightly] broader than connective duct)

      primary spermatheca - shape
      round
      slightly elongated, anteriorly converging (drop-shaped)
      elongated sac-like
      transversal oval
      diagonal oval

      primary spermatheca - size rel.
      small (diameter of primary spermatheca less than 1/2 the length of epigynal window)
      medium-sized (diameter of primary spermatheca more than 1/2 the length of epigynal window, but less than 2/3)
      large (diameter of primary spermatheca more than 2/3 the length of epigynal window, but less than 3/4)
      very large (diameter of primary spermatheca more than 3/4 the length of epigynal window)
      no statement possible, as primary spermatheca is not visible through epigynal cuticle or epigynal window(s) is/are absent

      primary spermatheca - position
      (all parts) clearly anterior of secondary spermatheca (in dorsal view with gap between the two)
      anteriorly in line with secondary spermatheca (may reaching further posteriorly than secondary spermatheca)
      (all parts) clearly posterior of secondary spermatheca (in dorsal view with [clearly recognisable] gap between the two)
      (main parts) posterior of secondary spermatheca (in dorsal view without gap between the two; may touching each other)
      no statement possible (e.g. because secondary spermatheca missing)

      secondary spermatheca - presence
      present
      absent (at least not recognisable as such; spermathecal heads may be located on a slightly widened section of the copulatory duct)

      secondary spermatheca - shape
      (approximately) round
      kidney-shaped
      "volumnious crescent"-shaped
      drop-shaped
      longitudinally oval
      transversally oval
      different

      secondary spermatheca - visibility
      visible through cuticle of the epigyne

      secondary spermatheca - size rel.
      very small (ratio "diameter primary spermatheca / diameter secondary spermatheca" > 2.5)
      small (ratio "diameter primary spermatheca / diameter secondary spermatheca" < 2.5 but > 1.5)
      medium-sized
      with the same size (at least approximately) as primary spermatheca
      larger than primary spermatheca

      secondary spermatheca - span
      span over both secondary spermathecae longer than span over both primary spermathecae
      span over both secondary spermathecae as long as span over both primary spermathecae
      span over both secondary spermathecae shorter than span over both primary spermathecae
      no statement possible as secondary spermathecae absent

      secondary spermatheca - orientation
      diagonal (latero-anteriorly; with spermathecal head orientated antereo-laterally)
      diagonal (latero-anteriorly; with spermathecal head orientated latero-posteriorly)
      diagonal (medio-anteriorly; with spermathecal head orientated posteriorly)
      longitudinal (posterio-anteriorly; with spermathecal head orientated posteriorly)
      longitudinal (posterio-anteriorly; with spermathecal head orientated latero-posteriorly)
      transversally (medio-laterally; with spermathecal head orientated latero-posteriorly)
      transversally (medio-laterally; with spermathecal head orientated medio-posteriorly)
      being round and thus orientation not recognisable; with spermathecal head orientated laterally)
      being round and thus orientation not recognisable; with spermathecal head orientated posteriorly)
      being round and thus orientation not recognisable; with spermathecal head orientated ventro-laterally)
      no statement possible as secondary spermathecae are absent

      connective duct - initial position
      posterio-medially
      anterio-medially
      centro-medially
      ventro-medially
      dorso-medially
      (ventro)-anterio-laterally
      ventro-anteriorly
      centro-anteriorly
      no statement possible, as secondary spermathecae absent

      connective duct - width
      very narrow
      narrow (width of secondary spermatheca / width of connective duct < 4, but > 3)
      medium-sized (width of secondary spermatheca / width of connective duct < 3, but > 2.5)
      broad (width of secondary spermatheca / width of connective duct < 2.5, but > 2)
      very broad (width of secondary spermatheca / width of connective duct < 2)
      no statement possible, as secondary spermathecae and connective duct absent

      connective duct - final position
      medially
      posterio-medially
      anterio-medially
      ventro-medially
      posterio-ventrally

      connective duct - shape
      straight (or at least approximately straight) longitudinally
      straight (or at least approximately straight) diagonally converging
      mainly straight longitudinally, but initially curved
      mainly straight (or at least approximately straight) longitudinally, but at initial half with 180° (re-)curve medially
      slightly curved and converging
      slightly curved and strongly diagonally converging
      convoluted (with at least 5 curves)

      connective duct - length rel.
      short
      medium-sized (length of connective duct / width of primary spermatheca > or equal 1.25, but < 1.5)
      long (length of connective duct / width of primary spermatheca > or equal 1.5, but < 2)
      very long (length of connective duct / width of primary spermatheca > or equal 2)

      head of spermatheca - shape
      very flat (length < or equal 1/2 x width)
      flat
      round (or at least spherical) (length > or equal 1 x width, but < 1.25x)
      elongated (length > or equal 1.25x the width, but < 1.75x)
      no statement possible, because heads of spermathecae absent

      head of spermatheca - orientation
      straight posterior
      latero-posteriorly
      posterio-laterally
      latero-ventrally
      anterio-laterally
      latero-anteriorly
    •     Ecology
       +

      Geographical Distribution
      South America
      North America
Anatomical/Morphological characters are used conforming to the Spider Anatomy Ontology whenever possible (Ramírez & Michalik 2019 – Diversity 11: 1–9.)
accessible through ONTOBEE