Survey of the genus Toxeus




published at http://www.jumping-spiders.com



17 Jan 2019


Toxeus bicuspidatus (♂) (YAMASAKI, 2012)



combinations

Myrmarachne bicuspidata (♂) YAMASAKI, 2012: 159 Toxeus bicuspidatus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

Celebes, Indonesia

illustrations


Fig.: D-38680
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38681
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - chelicera and carapace, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38682
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - chelicera and fang, ventral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38683
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - maxillae, labium, sternum, coxae. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38684
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, ventral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38685
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palp, lateral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)


Fig.: D-38686
Myrmarachne bicuspidata - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal tibia, dorsal view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)





references

EDWARDS, G. B. (2013)

A philosophy and methodology for matching opposite sexes of one species, exemplified by a new synonym in Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae). PECKHAMIA, Simpsonville. 111.1: 1-12.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
YAMASAKI, T.  (2012)

Taxonomy of the genus Myrmarachne of Sulawesi, based on the THORELL´S types and additional specimens (Araneae, Salticidae). Ann.Mus.Civ.Stor.Nat. Genova, Genova. 104: 153-180.


Toxeus cuneatus (♀) (BADCOCK, 1917)



combinations

Myrmarachne cuneata (♀) BADCOCK, 1917: 300
Toxeus cuneatus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

Malaysia

illustrations


Fig.: D-5511
Myrmarachne cuneata - Immature ♂, sternum. Scale line = 0.5 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5512
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Highlands. Lateral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5513
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Highlands. Sternum and leg bases. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5514
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Highlands. Epigynum. Scale line = 0.1 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5515
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Forest. Lateral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5516
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Forest. Sternum and leg bases. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)


Fig.: D-5517
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Forest. Epigynum. Scale line = 0.1 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5518
Myrmarachne cuneata - Adult ♀ from Genting Forest. Internal structure of epigynum showing spermatheca and channel. Scale line = 0.1 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-30734
Myrmarachne cuneata - ♀ - profile- © BADCOCK, H. D. (1917)

Fig.: D-30735
Myrmarachne cuneata - ♀ - epigyne- © BADCOCK, H. D. (1917)





references

BADCOCK, H. D. (1917)

Ant-like spiders from Malaya, collected by the Annandale-Robinson Expedition 1901-02. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1917: 277-321 .
EDMUNDS, M. (2006)

Do Malaysian Myrmarachne associate with particular species of ant?. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 645-653.
EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

On a collection of Myrmarachne spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from peninsular Malaya. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 12: 297-323.
NORMA-RASHID, Y. & LI, D. (2009)

A checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from peninsular Malaysia inclusive of twenty new records. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57 2: 305-322.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. Ann. Zool., Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.


Toxeus globosus (♂,♀) (WANLESS, 1978)



combinations

Myrmarachne globosa (♀) WANLESS, 1978: 99
Myrmarachne globosa: (♂,♀) PENG et al. 1993: 133
Myrmavola globosa: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 13
Toxeus globosus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2017: 100


distribution

Angola, China, Congo, Vietnam

illustrations


Fig.: D-37645
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - body. Scale: 1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37646
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - chelicera. Scale: 1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37647
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - cheliceral basal segment, ventral- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37648
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - palpal organ. Scale: 0.1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37649
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - palpal organ. Scale: 0.1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37650
Myrmarachne globosa - ♂ - palpal organ. Scale: 0.1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)


Fig.: D-37651
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - body. Scale: 1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37652
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - chelicera. Scale: 1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37653
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - epigynum. Scale: 0.1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-37654
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - vulva dorsal. Scale: 0.1 mm- © PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Fig.: D-16701
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - epigyne- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

Fig.: D-16702
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - epigyne internal structure- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)


Fig.: D-16703
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - general appearance- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

Fig.: D-16704
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - cheliceral dentition- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

Fig.: D-34618
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - dorsal view- © WANLESS, F. R. (1978)

Fig.: D-34619
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - lateral view- © WANLESS, F. R. (1978)

Fig.: D-34620
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - sternum- © WANLESS, F. R. (1978)

Fig.: D-34621
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - epigyne ventral view - © WANLESS, F. R. (1978)


Fig.: D-34622
Myrmarachne globosa - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - vulva ventral view - © WANLESS, F. R. (1978)





references

CHEN, Z. & ZHANG, Z. (1991)

Fauna of Zhejiang. Araneida. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing house, Zhejiang.
LOGUNOV, D. V. & JÄGER, P. (2015)

Spiders from Vietnam (Arachnida: Aranei): new species and records. Russian Entomol. J. 24 4: 343-363.
PENG, X. J., XIE, L. P., XIAO, Q. X. & YIN, C. M. (1993)

Salticids in China (Arachnida: Araneae). Hunan Normal University Press 270 pp..
PLATNICK, N. I. (1989)

Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1981-1987. A supplement to Brignoli´s "A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981". Manchester University Press 673 pp.
PLATNICK, N. I. (1993)

Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1988-1991. With synonymies and transfers 1940-1980. Entomol. Soc. & Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 846 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1987)

Atlas of drawings of less known Salticidae (Araneae) - an Atlas, 2. WSRP 1-172.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2017)

Pragmatic classification of the World's Salticidae (Araneae). ECOLOGICA MONTENEGRINA 12: 1-134.
SONG, D. X., ZHU, M. S. & CHEN, J. (1999)

The Spiders of China. Hebei Sci. Technol. Publ. House, Shijiazhuang 640 pp..
SZÜTS, T. (2004)

Problematikus nyugat-afrikai ugrópók-menek (Araneae: Salticidae) taxonómiai revíziója. Doktori Értekezés. 1-109.
WANLESS, F. R. (1978)

A revision of the spider genera Belippo and Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) in the Ethiopian region. Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.) 33 1: 1-139.
XIAO, X. Q. & WANG, S. P. (2007)

Description of the female spider of Myrmarachne hanoii ŻABKA (Araneae, Salticidae). Acta Arachnol. Sinica 32 4: 1004-1005.
YIN, C. M., PENG, X. J., YAN, H. M., BAO, Y. H., XU, X., TANG, G., ZHOU, Q. S. & LIU, P. (2012)

Fauna Hunan: Araneae in Hunan, China. Hunan Science and Technology Press, Changsha 1590 pp.
ŻABKA, M. (1985)

Systematic and zoogeographic study on the family Salticidae (Araneae) from Viet-Nam. Ann. Zool., Warszawa. 39 11:.


Toxeus gorontaloensis (♀) (YAMASAKI, 2012)



combinations

Myrmarachne gorontaloensis (♀) YAMASAKI, 2012: 163 Toxeus gorontaloensis: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


misidentifications

Myrmarachne bicuspidatus: EDWARDS 2013: 10 (syn. nov.) [PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17]


distribution

Celebes

illustrations


Fig.: D-38695
Myrmarachne gorontaloensis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38696
Myrmarachne gorontaloensis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - body, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38697
Myrmarachne gorontaloensis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - maxillae, coxae, labium, sternum. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)

Fig.: D-38698
Myrmarachne gorontaloensis - ♀ - HOLOTYPE - internal sructure of epigyne, ventral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. (2012)





references

EDWARDS, G. B. (2013)

A philosophy and methodology for matching opposite sexes of one species, exemplified by a new synonym in Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae). PECKHAMIA, Simpsonville. 111.1: 1-12.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
YAMASAKI, T.  (2012)

Taxonomy of the genus Myrmarachne of Sulawesi, based on the THORELL´S types and additional specimens (Araneae, Salticidae). Ann.Mus.Civ.Stor.Nat. Genova, Genova. 104: 153-180.


Toxeus grossus (♂,♀) EDMUNDS & PRÓSZYŃSKI, 2003



combinations

Myrmarachne grossa (♂,♀) EDMUNDS & PRÓSZYŃSKI, 2003: 313
Toxeus grossus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2018: 163


distribution

Malaysia

illustrations


Fig.: D-5524
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Lateral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5525
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Sternum and leg bases. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5526
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Left palpal organ, ventral view. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5527
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Left palpal organ, lateral view. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5528
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Left tibial apophysis, lateral view. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5529
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Left tibial apophysis, lateral view from slightly different angle. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)


Fig.: D-5530
Myrmarachne grossa - ♂ - from Panson Forest Reserve. Right chelicera, ventral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5531
Myrmarachne grossa - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Right chelicera, lateral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5532
Myrmarachne grossa - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Sternum. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5533
Myrmarachne grossa - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Epigynum. Scale line = 0.1 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5534
Myrmarachne grossa - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Internal structure of epigynum showing spermatheca and channel. Scale line = 0.1 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)





references

EDMUNDS, M. (2006)

Do Malaysian Myrmarachne associate with particular species of ant?. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 645-653.
EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

On a collection of Myrmarachne spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from peninsular Malaya. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 12: 297-323.
EDWARDS, G. B. & BENJAMIN, S. P. (2009)

A first look at the phylogeny of the Myrmarachninae, with rediscovery and redescription of the type species of Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 2309: 1-29.
NORMA-RASHID, Y. & LI, D. (2009)

A checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from peninsular Malaysia inclusive of twenty new records. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57 2: 305-322.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2018)

Review of genera Evarcha and Nigorella, with comments on Emertonius, Padilothorax, Stagetillus, and description of five new genera and two new species (Araneae: Salticidae). Ecologica Montenegrina 16: 130-179.


Toxeus hirsutipalpi (♂,♀) (EDMUNDS & PRÓSZYŃSKI, 2003)



combinations

Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi (♂,♀) EDMUNDS & PRÓSZYŃSKI, 2003: 319
Toxeus hirsutipalpi: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore

illustrations


Fig.: D-15208
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - Bali - general appearance, dorsal view- © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. & DEELEMAN-REINHOLD, C. L. (2010)

Fig.: D-15209
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - Bali - general appearance, lateral view- © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. & DEELEMAN-REINHOLD, C. L. (2010)

Fig.: D-15210
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - Bali - palpus, ventral view- © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. & DEELEMAN-REINHOLD, C. L. (2010)

Fig.: D-5570
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - from Genting Forest. Dorso-lateral view. Scale line = 1.0 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5571
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - from Genting Forest. Sternum. Scale line = 0.5 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5572
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - from Genting Forest. Left palpal organ, ventral view. Scale line = 0.5 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)


Fig.: D-5573
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - from Genting Forest. Left palpal organ, lateral view. Scale line = 0.5 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5574
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♂ - from Genting Forest. Left tibial apophysis, dorsal view. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5575
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Epigynum. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

Fig.: D-5576
Myrmarachne hirsutipalpi - ♀ - from Genting Forest. Internal structure of epigynum showing spermatheca and channel. Scale line = 0.25 mm - © EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)





references

EDMUNDS, M. (2006)

Do Malaysian Myrmarachne associate with particular species of ant?. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 645-653.
EDMUNDS, M. & PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2003)

On a collection of Myrmarachne spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) from peninsular Malaya. Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 12: 297-323.
NORMA-RASHID, Y. & LI, D. (2009)

A checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from peninsular Malaysia inclusive of twenty new records. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57 2: 305-322.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2018)

Review of genera Evarcha and Nigorella, with comments on Emertonius, Padilothorax, Stagetillus, and description of five new genera and two new species (Araneae: Salticidae). Ecologica Montenegrina 16: 130-179.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. & DEELEMAN-REINHOLD, C. L. (2010)

Description of some Salticidae (Araneae) from the Malay Archipelago. I. Salticidae of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with comments on related species. Arthropoda Selecta, Moscow. 19 3: 153-188.


Toxeus jajpurensis (♀) (PRÓSZYŃSKI, 1992)



combinations

Myrmarachne jajpurensis (♀) PRÓSZYŃSKI, 1992: 187
Toxeus jajpurensis: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

India

illustrations


Fig.: D-3483
Myrmarachne jajpurensis - ♀ - shape of sternum - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1992)

Fig.: D-3484
Myrmarachne jajpurensis - ♀ - epigyne - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1992)

Fig.: D-3485
Myrmarachne jajpurensis - ♀ - epigyne, internal structure - © PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1992)





references

PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1992)

Salticidae (Araneae) of India in the collection of the Hungarian National Natural History Museum in Budapest. Ann. Zool., Warszawa. 44 9: 165-276.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2018)

Review of genera Evarcha and Nigorella, with comments on Emertonius, Padilothorax, Stagetillus, and description of five new genera and two new species (Araneae: Salticidae). Ecologica Montenegrina 16: 130-179.
SILIWAL, M., MOLUR, S. & BISWAS, B. K. (2005)

Indian spiders (Arachnida: Araneae): updated checklist 2005. Zoos´ Print Journal 20 10: 1999-2049.


Toxeus latithoracicus (♂,♀) (YAMASAKI & HUANG, 2012)



combinations

Myrmarachne latithoracica (♂,♀) YAMASAKI & HUANG, 2012: 7
Toxeus latithoracicus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

Japan, Taiwan

illustrations


Fig.: D-38945
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38946
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - carapace and chelicera, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38947
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - left chelicera, ventral view. Scale: 0.5 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38948
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - Carapace, labium maxillae, sternum, coxae, ventral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38949
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - left palp. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38950
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - left palp. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)


Fig.: D-38951
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♂ - left palp. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38952
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38953
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - body, dark individual, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38954
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - carapace and chelicera, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38955
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - Carapace, labium maxillae, sternum, coxae, ventral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

Fig.: D-38956
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - epigyne ventral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)


Fig.: D-38957
Myrmarachne latithoracica - ♀ - epigyne dorsal view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)





references

ONO, H. & OGATA, K. (2018)

Spiders of Japan: Their Natural History and Diversity. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa 713 pp..
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

A new species of the genus Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) from the central Ryukyus and Taiwan. Acta Arachnologica Tokyo 61: 7-10.


Toxeus magnus (♂) (SAITO, 1933)



combinations

Myrmarachne magnus (♂) SAITO, 1933: 40
Myrmarachne magna: ROEWER 1954
Myrmarachne magna: (♂,♀) HUANG 2004: 44
Toxeus magnus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 17


distribution

China, Taiwan


references

HU, J. L. (1984)

The Chinese spiders collected from the fields and the forests. Tianjin Press of Science and Techniques 482 pp..
HUANG, J. N. (2004)

Taxonomic study of Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) from Taiwan. National Sun Yat-sen University, thesis 1-87.
IKEDA, H. (2010)

[Notes on the scientific names of the jumping spiders, part 2: the genus Myrmarachne]. KISHIDA 98: 21-32.
LEE, C. L. (1966)

[Spiders of Formosa (Taiwan)]. Taichung Junior Teachers College Publisher 84 pp..
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SAITO, S. (1933)

Notes on the spiders from Formosa. Trans Sapporo nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 32-61 pl.3,.
YAMASAKI, T. & HUANG, J. N. (2012)

A new species of the genus Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) from the central Ryukyus and Taiwan. Acta Arachnologica Tokyo 61: 7-10.
ZHU, C.-D. (1983)

[A list of chinese spiders (revised in 1983)]. J. Bethune Med. Univ. 9: 1-130.


Toxeus maxillosa septemdentatus (♂,♀) (STRAND, 1907)



combinations

Myrmarachne maxillosa v. 7-dentata (♂) STRAND, 1907: 568
Myrmarachne maxillosa septemdentata: (♂) STRAND 1909: 99
Myrmarachne 7-dentata: (♂,♀) FENG 1990: 210


distribution

China


references

CHEN, X. & GAO, J. (1990)

The Sichuan Farmland spiders in China. Sichuan Sci. Tech. Publ. House, Chengdu, China 226 pp..
FENG, Z. Q.  (1990)

Spiders of China in colour. Hunan Science and Technology Publishing House 256 .
FOX, I. (1937)

Notes on Chinese spiders of the families Salticidae and Thomisidae. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 27 1: 12-23.
HU, J. L. (1984)

The Chinese spiders collected from the fields and the forests. Tianjin Press of Science and Techniques 482 pp..
HUANG, J. N. (2004)

Taxonomic study of Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) from Taiwan. National Sun Yat-sen University, thesis 1-87.
PLATNICK, N. I. (1993)

Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1988-1991. With synonymies and transfers 1940-1980. Entomol. Soc. & Am. Mus. nat. Hist. 846 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1976)

Studium systematyczno-zoogeograficzne nad rdzina Salticidae regionow palearktycznego i nearktycznego. Wysza skola Pedagogiczna w Siedlcach 6: 260 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1987)

Atlas of drawings of less known Salticidae (Araneae) - an Atlas, 2. WSRP 1-172.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SONG, D. X., ZHU, M. S. & CHEN, J. (1999)

The Spiders of China. Hebei Sci. Technol. Publ. House, Shijiazhuang 640 pp..
STRAND, E. (1907)

Vorläufige Diagnosen süd- und ostasiatischer Clubioniden, Ageleniden, Pisauriden, Lycosiden, Oxyopiden und Salticiden.. Zool. Anz., Jena. 31: 558-570.
STRAND, E. (1909)

Süd- und ostasiatische Spinnen II. Fam. Clubionidae - Fam. Salticidae. Abh. naturf. Ges. Görlitz 26: 1-128.
ZHU, C.-D. (1983)

[A list of chinese spiders (revised in 1983)]. J. Bethune Med. Univ. 9: 1-130.


Toxeus maxillosus (♂,♀) C. L. KOCH, 1846



combinations

Toxeus maxillosus (♂) C. L. KOCH, 1846: 19-20
Toxeus maxillosa: (♀) THORELL 1895: 328
Myrmarachne maxillosa: SIMON 1901: 499
Toxeus maxillosus: PRÓSZYŃSKI 2016: 16
Myrmarachne maxillosa: ŻABKA & GARDZIŃSKA 2017: 230


synonyms

Toxeus giganteus (♂,♀) (ŻABKA, 1985) [YAMASAKI & AHMAD, 2013: 538]
Toxeus modestus (juv.) (THORELL, 1892) [SHERRIFFS, 1931: 540]
Toxeus procerus (♂) (THORELL, 1877) [SIMON, 1901: 499]
Toxeus bellicosus (♂) (PECKHAM & PECKHAM, 1892) [SIMON, 1901: 499]


distribution

Andaman Islands, Borneo, Burma, Celebes, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Java, Luzon, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

illustrations


Fig.: D-38620
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38621
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - chelicera and carapace, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38622
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - maxillae, labium, sternum and coxae. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38623
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - chelicera and fang, ventral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38624
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - palp, ventral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38625
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - palp, lateral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)


Fig.: D-38626
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - palpal tibia, dorsal view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38627
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♀ - body, dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38628
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♀ - chelicera and carapace, lateral view. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38629
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♀ - maxillae, labium, sternum and coxae. Scale: 1 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Fig.: D-38630
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♀ - internal structure of epigyne, ventral view. Scale: 0.25 mm- © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16691
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)


SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16692
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16693
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16694
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - palpal organ- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16695
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - HOLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16696
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - ALLOTYPE - epigyne- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16697
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - ALLOTYPE - epigyne, internal structures- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)


SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16698
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - ALLOTYPE - general appearance- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16699
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - ALLOTYPE - pedicel- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-16700
Myrmarachne gigantea - ♂ - ALLOTYPE - cheliceral dentition- © ŻABKA, M. (1985)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-13662
Salticus bellicosus - ♂- © PECKHAM, G. W. & PECKHAM, E. G. (1892)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-13663
Salticus bellicosus - ♂ - palpus- © PECKHAM, G. W. & PECKHAM, E. G. (1892)

SYNONYM
Fig.: D-13664
Salticus bellicosus - ♂ - palpus- © PECKHAM, G. W. & PECKHAM, E. G. (1892)






Fig.: F-6323
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♀ - internal structure of epigyne, ventral view. Scale: 0.1 mm - © YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)


Fig.: F-5098
Myrmarachne maxillosa - ♂ - Lombok - photo by Jürgen Otto - © HILL, D. E. & OTTO, J. C. (2015)


references

BADCOCK, H. D. (1917)

Ant-like spiders from Malaya, collected by the Annandale-Robinson Expedition 1901-02. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1917: 277-321 .
BANKS, N. (1930)

Ant-like Spiders of the Genus Myrmarachne from the Philippines. Psyche 37 3: 207-218, 1 pl..
BERTKAU, P. (1878)

Bericht über die wissenschaftlichen Leistungen im Gebiete der Arthropoden während der Jahre 1877-78. Arch.Naturgesch., Berlin. 44 2:.
CECCARELLI, S. (2010)

New species of ant-mimicking jumping spiders of the genus Myrmarachne MACLEAY, 1839 (Araneae: Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Aust. J. Ent. 49: 245-255.
EDWARDS, G. B. (2013)

A review of the synonyms of Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae), with comments on the availability of each genus name. PECKHAMIA, Simpsonville. 110.1: 1-9.
HARLAND, D. P. & JACKSON, R. R. (2001)

Prey classification by Portia fimbriata, a salticid spider that specializes at preying on other salticids: species that elict crypric stalking. J. Zool., London. 255: 445-460.
HILL, D. E. (2010)

Sunda to Sahul: Trans-Wallacean distribution of recent salticid genera (Araneae: Salticidae). PECKHAMIA, Simpsonville. 80.1: 1-60.
HILL, D. E. & OTTO, J. C. (2015)

Exasperating taxonomy of the colourful ant-mimic Myrmarachne exasperans (Araneae: Salticidae: Astioida: Myrmarachinae). PECKHAMIA, Simpsonville. 131.1: 1-5.
JACKSON, R. R. & WILLEY, M. B. (1994)

The comparative study of the predatory behaviour of Myrmarachne, ant-like jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc., London. 77-102.
JACKSON, R. R., POLLARD, S. D., NELSON, X. J., EDWARDS, G. B. & BARRION, A. T. (2001)

Jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) that feed on nectar. J. Zool., London. 255: 25-29.
KARSCH, F. (1880)

Arachnologische Blätter (Decas I). Zeitschr. ges. Naturw. 53: 373-409.
KOCH, C. L. (1846)

Die Arachniden. Dreizehnter Band. Lotzbeck, Nürnberg 1-234.
KOCH, C. L. (1850)

Übersicht des Arachnidensystems. Heft 5. Nürnberg pp. 1-104.
MORITZ, M. & FISCHER, S. (1983)

Die Typen der Arachniden-Sammlung des Zoologischen Museums Berlin V. Araneae: Salticidae. Mitt. zool. Mus. Berlin 59 2: 329-362.
NELSON, X. J., LI, D. & JACKSON, R. R. (2006)

Out of the frying pan and into the fire: a novel trade-off for Batesian mimics . Ethology 112: 270-277.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R. (2005)

Compound mimicry and trading predators by the males of sexually dimporphic Batesian mimics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273: 367-372.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R. (2006)

Vision-based innate aversion to ants and ant mimics. Behavioral Ecology 17: 676-681.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R. & LI, D. (2006)

Conditional use of honest signaling by a Batesian mimic. Behavioral Ecology 17: 575-580.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R., EDWARDS, G. B. & BARRION, A. T. (2005)

Living with the enemy: jumping spiders that mimic weaver ants . J. Arachnol. 33: 813-819.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R., LI, D. , BARRION, A. T. & EDWARDS, G. B. (2006)

Innate aversion to ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and ant mimics: experimental findings from mantises . Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 88: 23-32.
NELSON, X. J., JACKSON, R. R., POLLARD, S. D., EDWARDS, G. B. & BARRION, A. T. (2004)

Predation by ants on jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) in the Philippines. New Zeal. J. Zool., Christchurch. 31: 45-56.
NORMA-RASHID, Y. & LI, D. (2009)

A checklist of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from peninsular Malaysia inclusive of twenty new records. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57 2: 305-322.
PECKHAM, G. W. & PECKHAM, E. G. (1892)

Ant-like spiders of the family Attidae. Occ. Pap. Nat. Hist. Soc. Wisconsin 2 1: 1-83.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1971)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. Ann. Zool., Warszawa. 28 17: 367-519.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (1990)

Catalogue of Salticidae (Araneae): Synthesis of Quotations in the World Literature since 1940, with Basic Taxonomic Data since 1758. Siedlce 366 pp.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2016)

Delimitation and description of 19 new genera, a subgenus and a species of Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. Ecologica Montenegrina 7: 4-32.
PRÓSZYŃSKI, J. (2017)

Pragmatic classification of the World's Salticidae (Araneae). ECOLOGICA MONTENEGRINA 12: 1-134.
REIMOSER, E. (1925)

Fauna sumatrensis (Beitrag Nr. 7). Araneina. Suppl. ent. 10: 89-94.
REIMOSER, E. (1927)

Spinnen von Sumatras Ostküste. Misc. Zool. Sumatrana 13: 1-6.
REIMOSER, E. (1929)

Spolia Mentawiensia. Araneae. Bull. Raffles Mus. 2: 125-133.
ROEWER, C. Fr. (1954)

Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940 2. Band (Salticiformia, Cribellata). Inst.Roy.Sc.Nat.Bel. 975-1279.
SHERRIFFS, W. R. (1931)

South Indian arachnology. Part V. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 10 7: 537-546.
SIMON, E. (1901)

Histoire naturelle des Araignees. Deuxieme edition. Paris (Roret) 2 3: 381-668.
SIMON, E. (1905)

Arachnides de Java recueillis par le Prof. K. KRAEPELIN en 1904. Mitt. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 22: 49-73.
SONG, D. X., ZHANG, J. X. & LI, D. (2002)

A checklist of spiders from Singapore (Arachnida: Araneae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 50 2: 359-388.
STRAND, E. (1917)

Arachnologica varia XIV-XVII. Arch.Naturgesch., Berlin. 82 2: 70-76.
SZOMBATHY, K. (1913)

Adatok a hangyaut nzo ugropokok pontosabb ismeret‚hez. [Contribution pour l´etude des Salticidae formiciformis]. Allatani Közlemenyek 12: 22-40, 55-57.
THORELL, T. (1877)

Studi sui Ragni Malesi e Papuani. I. Ragni di Selebes raccolti nel 1874 dal Dott. O. BECCARI. Ann.Mus.Civ.Stor.Nat. Genova, Genova. 10: 341-637.
THORELL, T. (1890)

Studi sui ragni Malesi e Papuani. IV, 1. Ann.Mus.Civ.Stor.Nat. Genova, Genova. 28: 1-419.
THORELL, T. (1895)

Descriptive Catalogue of the Spiders of Burma, based upon the collection made in Eugene W. OATES and preserved in the British Museum. London (Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.) 1-406.
WHITE, A. (1846)

Description of a New genus of Arachnida, with notes on two other species of spiders. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. , London. 18: 179-180.
YAMASAKI, T. (2015)

[Studies on taxonomy, biogeography and mimicry of the genus Myrmarachne in Southeast Asia]. Acta Arachnologica 64 1: 49-56.
YAMASAKI, T. & AHMAD, A. H. (2013)

Taxonomic study of the genus Myrmarachne of Borneo (Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 3710 6: 501-556.
YAMASAKI, T. , HASHIMOTO, Y., EENDO, T., HYODO, F., ITIOKA, T. & MELENG, P.  (2018)

New species of the ant-mimicking genus Myrmarachne MACLEAY, 1839 (Araneae: Salticidae) from Sarawak, Borneo. Zootaxa 4521 3: 335-356.
ŻABKA, M. & GARDZIŃSKA, J. (2017)

Salticidae of Thailand. Part 1, genera Plexippus C. L. KOCH, 1846 and Burmattus PRÓSZYŃSKI, 1992. Ann. Zool., Warszawa. 67 2: 229-242.


Click to Print This Page